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Introduction to electric arc furnace

Release time:2019-11-04 From: Zhengnai Industry in China

The difference between artificial graphite electrode and natural graphite electrode

Graphite electrode is the use of petroleum coke and pitch coke as grain, coal pitch as binder, after calcining, broken, ingredients, kneading, molding, baking and graphitizing and mechanical processing and made of a kind of high temperature resistance of graphite conductive material, called artificial graphite electrode (hereinafter referred to as graphite electrode), to distinguish it from the use of natural graphite as raw material to produce the natural graphite electrode.
 
 

graphite electrode is important in the contemporary raw material industry

Graphite electrode is an important high-temperature conductive material for electric furnace steelmaking. Electric energy is input to electric furnace through graphite electrode, and the high-temperature arc generated between electric extreme part and furnace charge is used as heat source to melt metal for steelmaking. Some other electric smelting equipment (such as submerged arc furnace) also use graphite extremely conductive material. The excellent physical and chemical properties of graphite electrode have been widely used in other industrial sectors. At present, the carbon products industry, which mainly produces graphite electrode, has become an important part of the raw material industry.


 

the reason for using graphite electrode in arc furnace

At the temperature of thousands of degrees, only carbonaceous or graphite materials can be used as conductive materials of arc furnace, because carbonaceous or graphite materials not only have low resistivity, but also can maintain high mechanical strength at the temperature of 3000℃ without softening or melting, and only carbon sublimates directly into gaseous state on the surface of graphite materials.
 
 

Advantages of electric furnace steelmaking

The electric steelmaking plant has a short construction period, large construction scale flexibility, and low investment per unit of steel. More importantly, the world has more and more scrap steel. Electric steelmaking uses scrap as the main raw material, while oxygen converter has certain scrap. proportion. Electric furnace steelmaking consumes less energy, only about 50% of the blast furnace-converter process. With the improvement of electric furnace equipment, the power supply has been increasing, and the development of electric steelmaking technology, the production cost of electric furnace steel has been continuously reduced. The electric furnace is not only used for smelting alloy steel, but also used for smelting ordinary steel. Some national steelmaking industries are mainly electric furnaces.
 

Current Status of Electric Furnace Steelmaking

China’s electric furnace steel proportion has been relatively high, and the world steel industry development trend. In order to speed up the technical transformation of electric steel mills, our company has introduced a batch of large electric furnaces with high power or ultra high power, including dc arc furnace. Thus the initial change of our company’s electric steelworks with 20 t small groups as the main backward situation.
 

 

The reason for using graphite electrode in arc furnace

At the temperature of thousands of degrees, only carbonaceous or graphitic materials can be used as conductive materials of arc furnace, because carbonaceous or graphitic materials not only have low resistivity, but also can maintain high mechanical strength at the temperature of 3000℃ without softening or melting, and only carbon sublimates directly into gaseous state on the surface of graphite materials.

 

Characteristics of electric arc furnace

The arc is a gas discharge phenomenon between the ends of the two electrodes. The electric furnace that smelts metal or other materials by the thermal effect of the arc is called an electric arc furnace. The electric energy of the electric arc furnace is concentrated, and the high temperature (thousands of degrees Celsius) can be achieved. It is regarded as the arc resistance to generate heat. Because the arc resistance value is relatively small, in order to obtain the required heat, it is necessary to pass a considerable working current, and the working voltage is not high but the working current is large, which is a characteristic of the electric arc furnace.

Index of RP Graphite electrode


Item Unit RP
300-800mm
Electric resistivity Electrode μΩm 7.8-8.8
Nipple 5.0-6.5
Flexural strength Electrode Mpa 7.0-12.0
Nipple 15.0-20.0
Elastic modulus Electrode Gpa 7.1-9.3
Nipple 12.0-14.0
Bulk density Electrode ≥g/cm3 1.53-1.56
Nipple 1.70-1.74
CTE(100-600℃) Electrode x10-6/℃ 2.2-2.6
Nipple 2.0-2.5
Ash   0.5

 

There are two types of electric arc furnaces

The electric arc furnace has two types: direct heating electric arc furnace and indirect heating electric arc furnace. The direct heating electric arc furnace generates arc between the electrode and the material, and directly heats the material. The three-phase electric arc furnace for steel making is the most commonly used direct heating arc. furnace. The indirect heating of the electric arc furnace current does not pass through the heated object, and the surrounding material is mainly heated by the heat radiated by the arc. The modern arc steelmaking furnace mainly uses the graphite electrode as a conductive material.
An electric furnace that directly heats molten metal or other materials by using an electric arc. There is also a submerged arc electric furnace, also called a reduction electric furnace or a submerged electric electric furnace. One end of the electrode is buried in the material, an arc is formed in the material layer, and the resistance of the material layer itself is utilized. Heating the material by heating, since the current density of the submerged arc furnace through the electrode is low, the submerged arc furnace can use a carbon electrode or a continuous self-baking electrode.


 

Advantages of electric furnace steelmaking

The electric steelmaking plant has a short construction period, large construction scale flexibility, and low investment per unit of steel. More importantly, the world has more and more scrap steel. Electric steelmaking uses scrap as the main raw material, while oxygen converter has certain scrap. proportion. Electric furnace steelmaking consumes less energy, only about 50% of the blast furnace-converter process. With the improvement of electric furnace equipment, the power supply has been increasing, and the development of electric steelmaking technology, the production cost of electric furnace steel has been continuously reduced. The electric furnace is not only used for smelting alloy steel, but also used for smelting ordinary steel. Some national steelmaking industries are mainly electric furnaces.
 
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